Ancestry, Cannabis

Genetic Variations in the Human Cannabinoid Receptor Gene Are Associated with Happiness

Abstract

Happiness has been viewed as a temporary emotional state (e.g., pleasure) and a relatively stable state of being happy (subjective happiness level).

As previous studies demonstrated that individuals with high subjective happiness level rated their current affective states more positively when they experience positive events, these two aspects of happiness are interrelated.

According to a recent neuroimaging study, the cytosine to thymine single-nucleotide polymorphism of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene is associated with sensitivity to positive emotional stimuli.

Thus, we hypothesized that our genetic traits, such as the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes, are closely related to the two aspects of happiness.

In Experiment 1, 198 healthy volunteers were used to compare the subjective happiness level between cytosine allele carriers and thymine-thymine carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene.

In Experiment 2, we used positron emission tomography with 20 healthy participants to compare the brain responses to positive emotional stimuli of cytosine allele carriers to that of thymine-thymine carriers.

Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, cytosine allele carriers have a higher subjective happiness level. Regression analysis indicated that the cytosine allele is significantly associated with subjective happiness level.

The positive mood after watching a positive film was significantly higher for the cytosine allele carriers compared to the thymine-thymine carriers.

Positive emotion-related brain region such as the medial prefrontal cortex was significantly activated when the cytosine allele carriers watched the positive film compared to the thymine-thymine carriers.

Thus, the human cannabinoid receptor 1 genotypes are closely related to two aspects of happiness. Compared to thymine-thymine carriers, the cytosine allele carriers of the human cannabinoid receptor 1 gene, who are sensitive to positive emotional stimuli, exhibited greater magnitude positive emotions when they experienced positive events and had a higher subjective happiness level.

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Angela Mari
Are You There God? It's Me, Gidget, Neuroscience

Hyperthymic Novelty—On Generosity: An Enhancement

“What will happen to life when science identifies the genetic basis of happiness? Who will own the patent? Do we dare revise our own temperaments?…”

I once met a physics teacher who immediately recognized me as the main character in the play he was nearly finished writing.

“Absolutely EVERYTHING I remember is realLithium just added a layer of fantasy on it (which I could perceive even at the time).”

Born to Be Happy

After reading an article “Born to Be Happy“, I found myself emailing Hagop Akiskal, M.D., Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the International Mood Center at the University of California at San Diego whose “work on dysthymia, cyclothymia and hyperthymia challenged the concept of personality disorders, led to the development of a new instrument (Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A)), thereby contributing to the worldwide renaissance of the temperament field.”

“Information may travel at light speed, but meaning spreads at the speed of dark.”

But being told that I was “hard wired for happiness” seemed a bit over simplified and “hard wired” seemed an insult to this interaction-designer-wannabe-cognitive scientist studying neurogenesis and neuroplasticity.

On “Rewiring the Real

“Digital and electronic technologies that act as extensions of our bodies and minds are changing how we live, think, act, and write. Some welcome these developments as bringing humans closer to unified consciousness and eternal life. Others worry that invasive globalized technologies threaten to destroy the self and the world. Whether feared or desired, these innovations provoke emotions that have long fueled the religious imagination, suggesting the presence of a latent spirituality in an era mistakenly deemed secular and post-human.”

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Neuroscience

I am a Copper Conductor, let’s stabilize my radioactivity.

Astatine

  • Only occurs on earth as the result of the radioactive decay of other elements, like Uranium and Thorium.
  • Most stable isotope has a half life of only 8 hours
  • Can’t be seen with a naked eye, because any mass big enough for you to see would…
  • Vaporize itself and maybe you and everything around you by the heat generated by it’s own radioactivity.
  • Vaporize cancer. Precise in awe inspiring destruction.

Targeted alpha therapy.

 

Oh, never mind the perfect water system. It’s no big deal. 😉

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Validated Criteria for Clinician-Rated Trait Hyperthymia (Primary Psychology, 2004)
Neuroscience

Hyperthymia Criteria

Validated Criteria for Clinician-Rated Trait Hyperthymia (Primary Psychology, 2004)

Validated Criteria for Clinician-Rated Trait Hyperthymia (Primary Psychology, 2004)

Validated Criteria for Clinician-Rated Trait Hyperthymia. Primary Psychology (2004)

Hyperthymia is characterized by four or more of the following attributes, which are not episode-bound, and constitute part of the habitual long-term functioning of the individual

  • Upbeat and exuberant
  • Articulate and jocular
  • Over-optimistic and carefree
  • Over-confident and boastful
  • High energy level, full of plans and improvident activities
  • Versatile, with broad interests
  • Over-involved and meddlesome
  • Uninhibited and risk-taking
  • Short sleeper (<6 hours/night)
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